The balance of the body is that without which a person could not live and develop. However, we don’t think about it, because all the tasks of maintaining balance and body position in space are performed by our brain in automatic mode. But in reality this is a very complicated and incredibly interesting mechanism. About this we now talk.The location of the common center of gravity of the body in various poses
In order for us to run, tumble, jump on one leg, ride a bike or even just write down our thoughts on a piece of paper, one skeleton and muscle contractions are not enough. It is also important to control the position of the body in space and maintain balance.
For the coordination of movements, we are responsible for the brain section - the cerebellum. The muscles are controlled by the nervous system, but the vestibular apparatus, which is located in the inner ear, "balances" the balance.
The vestibular apparatus is an organ that perceives changes in the position of the head and body in space and the direction of body movement in vertebrates and humans. The vestibular apparatus is part of the inner ear.
The inner ear is called a labyrinth because of its intricate shape. The labyrinth consists of a snail, a vestibule and semicircular canals. The snail is a part of the organ of hearing, and the vestibule and semicircular canals are the organs of balance and position of the body in space.
The semicircular canals are located in three planes perpendicular to each other. They contain a special viscous fluid: when we move in space or change the position of the head, the level of the fluid shifts, which is what the special receptors in these channels feel.
They transmit a signal about a change in the position of the body to the vestibular nerve, and then the information instantly enters the brain.
Thus, we maintain the balance of the body in the most confusing circumstances.
The work of the vestibular apparatus allows a person to accurately navigate in space with the most complex movements - for example, jumping from a springboard into the water and at the same time having turned over several times in the air, the diver instantly finds out where the top is and where the bottom is.
Even performing very complex movements, a person is oriented in space and can maintain the balance of the body. Gymnasts, acrobats or trampoline athletes perform a whole range of jumps and coups, but they do not lose their orientation and balance.
If the semicircular canals react to rotational motions, then the acceleration and deceleration, as well as the change of gravity, perceives the otolithic apparatus. It consists of two bags of liquid.
There are small crystals of calcium salts in this fluid - otoliths. They constantly put pressure on the hairs in the bags, so we always feel the force of gravity.
When we tilt the head or body down, the otoliths shift, thereby changing their pressure on the hairs.
This information also enters the brain through the vestibular nerve.
The vestibular apparatus studies space medicine with particular care: in the state of weightlessness, the cosmonauts cease to function the otolith apparatus.
Therefore, an artificial force of gravity is created on the spacecraft so that the vestibular apparatus can work fully.
Excellent work of the vestibular apparatus is necessary for people of many important professions: pilots, sailors, athletes, because they have to determine their body position in extremely difficult conditions.
The ability to maintain body balance is the key to a full life. Without this, it would be impossible to imagine the existence of our civilization, and of the world in general.