Alexander Griboedov is a great Russian playwright, poet, musician and state councilor. Few people know that in addition to writing, he was also an outstanding diplomat.
There were many interesting and unusual events in his biography, and his death deserves a separate article. Schoolchildren know Griboyedov only because they have to read the famous play "Woe from Wit."
However, if you find out how much the genius Griboyedov managed to do in his short 34-year life, you cannot help but feel deep respect and even enthusiasm for this great man.
So, your attention is invited to the biography of Griboedov.
Alexander Sergeevich Griboedov was born on January 15, 1794 in Moscow. He grew up in a noble family and was distinguished by special curiosity.
His father, Sergei Ivanovich, was a retired second major. Being gambling by nature, he often lost large sums of money. Being a weak-minded person, he did not enjoy prestige either in society or at home.
Alexander's mother, Anastasia Fedorovna, was from a wealthy family. An interesting fact is that it also belonged to the Griboedov family line.
Childhood and youth
Griboedov's biographers note that from the earliest years, Alexander was distinguished by high intelligence.
According to the testimony of close people, at the age of 6, little Sasha spoke quite well in German, Italian, French and English.
In his youth, he learned Latin and ancient Greek language.
Twice a week a dance class of Iogel, who taught children to dance, was going to the Griboedovs' house. They also often held musical evenings where Alexander performed various compositions.
The future playwright was mainly raised by the mother.
When Griboyedov was 9 years old, his parents sent him to the Moscow university noble boarding house, in which he studied for 3 years.
During the biography of 1806-1808, he studied at the Moscow University in the verbal department.
Having finished it, Griboyedov became the candidate of verbal sciences. Interestingly, at that time he was only 13 years old.
Alexandra was never forced to learn. He received a special pleasure from the new knowledge, so he eagerly studied any science.
In 1808, the young man continued his studies at the same university in the ethical-political faculty.
After 2 years, he received a candidate degree in law and stayed at an educational institution to study mathematics and science.
In parallel with this, Griboedov was interested in music, and even composed songs. Unfortunately, only 2 waltzes have reached our days from his musical creativity.
Griboyedov's friends were children from noble families. In addition, he had close relations with future Decembrists, discussing with them various "forbidden" topics. In this regard, he was like another great writer - Fyodor Dostoevsky.
Alexander had a keen sense of humor, and was also an extremely quick-witted, resourceful and cheerful person. Thanks to these qualities, he was the soul of any company.
Griboyedov also liked to talk with people belonging to the intelligentsia. He often spent time with diplomats, poets, artists and musicians.
An interesting fact is that Alexander Pushkin maintained friendly relations with Griboedov, considering him one of the smartest people in Russia.
1812 was a turning point in the biography of Griboyedov. When Napoleon attacked Russia, he had to serve as a cornet of a hussar regiment. However, military affairs did not bring him any pleasure.
He felt he was born for another field, and he dreamed of engaging in writing as soon as possible.
Being a brilliantly educated young man, Griboedov could debate on various topics. But the main passion of his life was literature.
At the age of 19, he wrote the comedy "Young Spouses". After its production in theaters of St. Petersburg, the comedy received many positive reviews from ordinary viewers and critics.
After that, Griboyedov wrote a few more works, and also translated the French comedy "Sham Infidelity" into Russian.
According to the testimony of close friends, Alexander Sergeyevich perfectly knew the works of Goethe, Schiller and Shakespeare.
Once, lieutenant Sheremetyev confessed to Griboyedov that the dancer he loved betrayed him with Count Zavadovsky.
In this regard, Sheremetyev summoned the count to a duel, asking Griboyedov to become his second.
Alexander Sergeevich persuaded a friend for a long time to abandon this undertaking, but he never agreed.
As a result, the duel took place, and the poor lieutenant was mortally wounded in the stomach.
Perhaps the matter would have ended on this, but there was a quarrel between Yakubovich, the second of Zavadsky and Griboedov, which also led them to a duel.
But since the wounded Sheremetyev had to be urgently taken to the hospital, they decided to move the fight.
As a result, the duel took place in the next, 1818. On it, the poet was wounded in the brush.
In 1818, Tsarist official Simon Mazarovich offered Griboyedov to take the post of secretary of the embassy in Persia, to which he immediately agreed.
For 3 years of work, Alexander Sergeyevich perfectly mastered a new language.
He even began to write poetry in Persian. However, being in a foreign land was a diplomat, and he constantly dreamed of returning to his homeland.
Possessing a deep intelligence and high culture, Griboyedov managed to achieve outstanding results in the diplomatic field.
He made an enormous contribution to the drafting of the Turkmanchay Treaty, and also played an important role during the Russian-Persian war.
In Tehran, Alexander Griboyedov worked on a peace treaty, the terms of which the Persians did not want to fulfill.
Soon a fatal event occurred in the biography of the diplomat, which resulted in a tragic death.
Being engaged in diplomatic affairs, Griboyedov managed to pick out from the harem of the Prime Minister of Persia Allayar-Khan two Armenian women whom he planned to send home.
However, insulted Allayar-Khan began to secretly incite people to unrest. This led to a crowd of religious fanatics threatening the life of a diplomat.
Here one more fact should be added. The fact is that Griboyedov had a servant named Alexander. So when the former concubines were brought to the embassy to be sent to Armenia, the servant began to pester them.
Women who did not want to go home, where poverty awaited them, took advantage of the moment and, after jumping out into the street, began to shout that they were dishonored.
At that very moment, an angry mob of Persians attacked those who were at the embassy. The massacre began, during which the guards and all the officials with servants were killed.
When the distraught crowd rushed into Griboyedov’s room, he asked with surprising calmness what they wanted. Since the diplomat spoke in pure Persian, this embarrassed the raging people.
However, suddenly a stone fell on Alexander Sergeevich’s head, since the rebels had already dismantled the ceiling.
Immediately, several dozen Persians blinded by anger attacked the unconscious diplomat, and they began to chop him up furiously.
The body of Griboyedov was so disfigured that it was only possible to identify him by the scar on the hand, which remained after the duel with Yakubovich.
An interesting fact is that Griboyedov had the opportunity to hide from an attack in the Armenian church, but he refused it.
Of all the members of the embassy, only Ivan Maltsev survived, who managed to hide in a chest.
After the tragedy in Tehran was declared a state of mourning. Thus, the authorities tried to demonstrate regret for the robbery at the Russian embassy.
Then, in order to hush up the crime of his people, the Persian shah sent a grandson to the Russian empire with many precious gifts, including the diamond "Shah", decorated with various precious stones.
Alexander Sergeevich Griboyedov was killed on January 30, 1829 at the age of 34. His body was taken to Tiflis and buried on Mount Mtatsminda, in a grotto near the Temple of St. David.
A few months later Alexander Pushkin visited the tomb of the playwright.
The only wife in the biography of Griboyedov was Nina Chavchavadze, whom he married a year before his death.
At the time of the massacre in Tehran, the girl was 8 months pregnant. In order not to disturb her with tragic news, they tried to hide the fact of the death of her spouse.
However, Nina’s relatives decided to tell her about it anyway, since they were afraid that she would learn about her husband’s death from strangers.
Upon learning of the defeat of the Russian mission and the murder of her husband by a crowd of fanatics, she began to cry softly. A few days later she began a premature birth, as a result of which the child did not survive.Alexander Griboyedov and his wife - Nina Chavchavadze
After that, Nina remained alone until the end of her days, forever remaining faithful to her deceased spouse. Soon it became known as the "black rose of Tiflis".
At the grave of her husband, Nina Chavchavadze erected a monument with the inscription: "The mind and your deeds are immortal in the Russian memory, but why did my love survived you!"
Despite his short life, Griboedov left a noticeable mark on Russian literature. His famous play "Woe from Wit" is considered the pinnacle of Russian drama. It contains a lot of aphorisms and popular expressions.
After reading this work, Pushkin said that "half of the poems should go into a proverb." In the future, this is what happened.
It is worth noting that the play drew criticism from the authorities, since the regime dominated it.Monument to Griboedov in Moscow on Chistoprudny Boulevard
Completely “Woe from Wit” was published only in 1862, 33 years after the author’s death.
An interesting fact is that the title of this work appears in Viktor Tsoi’s song "Red-Yellow Days".