Biography Saltykov-Shchedrin

Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin - Russian writer, journalist, editor of the journal Otechestvennye Zapiski, Ryazan and Tver Vice-Governor. Saltykov-Shchedrin was the master of the island of the word and was the author of many aphorisms.

He managed to create beautiful works in the genre of satire and realism, as well as help the reader to analyze his mistakes.

There are many interesting facts in the biography of Saltykov-Shchedrin that you most likely did not know about.

So, before you brief Biography of Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin.

Short biography of Saltykov-Shchedrin

Mikhail Yevgrafovich Saltykov was born on January 15, 1826 in the village of Spas-Ugol, Tver province. Interestingly, the second part of his surname (Shchedrin) is his pseudonym.

Ros Michael in an educated noble family.

His father, Evgraf Vasilievich, worked as a collegiate adviser. Mother, Olga, was the daughter of a wealthy nobleman.

In addition to Michael, 2 more boys and 3 girls were born in the Saltykov family.

Childhood and youth

Despite the fact that the future writer was surrounded by love and care from an early age, he did not speak very well about his childhood. In particular, he did not like his mother, who was a powerful and strict woman.

According to the memoirs of Saltykov-Shchedrin, it was because of her that their family often had scandals.

At a young age he managed to learn German and French, as well as study various sciences.

The knowledge gained came in handy in his biography and helped him successfully pass the exams at the Moscow Nobility Institute, where he received good grades.

After that, Mikhail continued his studies at the prestigious Tsar's Lyceum, in which the "golden youth" of Russia studied.

Perhaps the most famous of his graduates was Alexander Pushkin.

While studying at the Lyceum, Saltykov-Shchedrin stopped monitoring his appearance, began to curse, smoke, and also often fell into the punishment cell for misbehavior.

As a result, the student graduated from the Lyceum with the rank of collegiate secretary. Interestingly, it was during this period of biography that he tried to write his first works.

After that, Mikhail began working in the office of the military department. He continued to engage in writing and became seriously interested in the work of the French socialists.

Link to Vyatka

The first tales in the biography of Saltykov-Shchedrin were “Confused Case” and “Contradiction”. In them, he raised important issues that run counter to the policies of the current government.

As a result, Saltykov-Shchedrin was exiled to Vyatka, where he also worked in the office. There, Mikhail Evgrafovich paid more attention to the study of history, was engaged in translation activities, and also often communicated with ordinary people.

When Alexander 2 appeared on the throne in 1855, he was allowed to return home. The following year, he was appointed special assignment officer at the Ministry of the Interior.

Creativity Saltykov-Shchedrin

Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin is one of the most prominent representatives of satire in Russian literature. He had a delicate sense of humor and was able to brilliantly convey it on paper.

An interesting fact is that it was he who invented expressions such as "bungling", "soft-bodied" and "nonsense."

One of the most popular portraits of the writer ME. Saltykov-Shchedrin

After Saltykov-Shchedrin returned from exile to Petersburg, he published a collection of stories entitled "Gubernskaya essays" under the name of Nikolay Shchedrin.

It is worth noting that even after he gained all-Russian popularity, many of his admirers will remember this particular work.

In his stories Saltykov-Shchedrin portrayed many different heroes who, in his opinion, were prominent representatives of the Russian people.

In 1870, Saltykov-Shchedrin wrote one of the most famous stories in his biography - “The Story of a City”.

It is worth noting that this work was not initially appreciated due to the fact that it contained a lot of allegories and unusual comparisons.

Some critics even accused Mikhail Evgrafovich of deliberately distorting historical facts. The story presented simple people of different minds and character, who unquestioningly obeyed the authorities.

In a short time from the pen of Saltykov-Shchedrin came out a very interesting and deep in content tale "The Wise Pischer". It told about all the fearful squealer, who until his death lived in fear and loneliness.

Then he began working as an editor in the publication "Notes of the Fatherland", which was owned by Nikolai Nekrasov. In this journal, in addition to his direct duties, Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin also published his own works.

For the first time, the magazine published the most outstanding works of Russian literature of the 1840s - poems and Lermontov's novels, works by Dostoevsky and Ostrovsky.

In 1880, Saltykov-Shchedrin wrote a brilliant novel "Golovlevs". It described the family, which all conscious life thought only about increasing its capital. Ultimately, this led the whole family to spiritual and moral decay.

Personal life

In the writer's biography there was only one wife - Elizaveta Boltin. Saltykov-Shchedrin met her during the exile. The girl was the daughter of the vice-governor and was 14 years younger than the groom.

Initially, his father did not want to give Elizabeth to marry a disgraced writer, however, after talking with him, he changed his mind.

An interesting fact is that Mikhail's mother was categorically opposed to marrying Boltina. The reason for this was the young age of the bride, as well as a small dowry. In the end, in 1856, Saltykov-Shchedrin got married after all.

Saltykov-Shchedrin with his wife

Soon between the newlyweds began to occur frequent quarrels. By his nature, Saltykov-Shchedrin was a direct and courageous man. Elizabeth, on the contrary, was a calm and patient girl. In addition, she did not have a sharp mind.

According to the memoirs of Mikhail Evgrafovich's friends, Boltin loved to get into the conversation, saying a lot of superfluous things, which, moreover, were often irrelevant.

At such moments, the writer simply lost his temper. In addition, the wife of Saltykov-Shchedrin loved luxury, which further increased the distance between the spouses.

Despite this, they lived together for a lifetime. In this marriage, they had a girl Elizabeth and a boy Constantine.

The biographers of Saltykov-Shchedrin argue that he was well versed in wines, played the piano and was an expert in questions concerning profanity.


In recent years, the writer has suffered from rheumatism. In addition, his health deteriorated after the “Notes of the Fatherland” were closed in 1884. Censorship considered the publication distributor of harmful ideas.

Shortly before his death, Saltykov-Shchedrin was bedridden, needing outside help and care. However, he did not lose optimism and sense of humor.

Often, when he could not receive guests because of his weakness, he asked me to tell them: "I am very busy - I am dying."

Mikhail Evgrafovich Saltykov-Shchedrin died April 28, 1889 at the age of 63 years. According to his request, he was buried next to the grave of Ivan Turgenev at the Volkov cemetery.

Watch the video: A Family of Noblemen Audiobook Mikhail SALTYKOV-SHCHEDRIN (March 2020).