Franklin Roosevelt - 32nd President of the United States, one of the central figures of world events of the first half of the 20th century, led the United States during the global economic crisis and World War II.
Roosevelt was re-elected as president 4 times in a row. In historiography, he is invariably placed on a par with the most prominent US presidents, Washington, Jefferson and Lincoln.
There are many interesting and unusual facts in his biography, which we will tell you about right now.
So before you short biography of Franklin Roosevelt.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (also known as the FDR in the USA) was born on January 30, 1882 in Hyde Park (New York). He was born in an intelligent and wealthy family.
His father, James Roosevelt, was descended from the old Rosenfeld family. He was a farmer and was the owner of several coal mining and transport companies.
Franklin's mother, Sarah Ann Delano Roosevelt, was the daughter of a successful businessman. An interesting fact is that Franklin Roosevelt’s father was 26 years older than his spouse, who was also his second wife.
Childhood and youth
Parents did everything possible to bring up good qualities in the son and to give him the best education. Up to 14 years old, the boy studied at home, after which he was sent to study at Groton School. A year later, Franklin entered Harvard.
Over the next two years, Roosevelt attended law school at Columbia University. As a result, he received permission to practice law. As a child, he often traveled with his family around the world, as a result of which he knew foreign languages quite well.
Roosevelt's Political Biography
From an early age, Franklin was seriously interested in politics. This was largely due to the fact that he was a relative of 26 US President Theodore Roosevelt.Franklin Roosevelt in childhood
When the guy turned 18, he got a seat in the New York State Legislature. He worked in the local government legislature, as a representative of the Democrats.
An interesting fact is that the following year Franklin Roosevelt became a member of the Masonic Lodge "Holland". Over the years of his biography, he will reach the 32nd degree of the Scottish Charter and will be in the Great Lodge of Georgia.
During the presidential race of 1912, Franklin supported the candidacy of Woodrow Wilson, who later became the 28th President of the United States. Thanks to this, Roosevelt received the post of Deputy Minister of the Navy.
In 1914, Roosevelt tried to get a seat in the Senate, but failed. The same thing awaited him in 1920
After suffering polio at the age of 39, Franklin became disabled. In this regard, he was forced to leave political activity for 8 years. However, he continued to do his best to return to the political arena.
In 1928, Franklin Delano Roosevelt won the election for governor from the state of New York. He held this position for 2 terms. During this period, the politician has gained invaluable experience, which was useful to him in the future.
On the eve of the presidential election of 1932, Roosevelt organized a committee to assist unemployed people. Because of this, he endeared himself to many Americans.
In addition, he spoke every day on the radio, discussing any topics of concern to a simple man in the street. An interesting fact is that later all the records of Roosevelt’s airs were published in the form of books.
President of the U.S.A
In 1933, Franklin Roosevelt presented for election his election program set out in the theses of the New Deal.
In it, he reflected his vision of the development of America and the elimination of existing problems related to the economic sector. The people believed him, as a result of which he became the head of state.
In the first months of his presidency, Roosevelt raised the level of the banking system and signed a document on refinancing farm debts.
In addition, he adopted a number of reforms relating to industry. For a relatively short period of time, he managed to noticeably improve the situation of the US internal affairs, increase the number of jobs and resolve issues related to farming.
After that, President Roosevelt developed several programs aimed at helping low-income children and the elderly.
Roosevelt formed trade unions, raised wages and made changes to the tax system. Less than a year later, he established diplomatic relations with the USSR.
In 1905, Roosevelt married his sixth sister Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962). Her father was the younger brother of President Theodore Roosevelt, who was the idol of Franklin.
In this marriage, they had 6 children, one of whom died in infancy.Franklin Roosevelt with his wife and children in his youth
Eleanor Roosevelt was a reliable support for her beloved husband and played an important role in his biography. This was especially evident after the spouse fell seriously ill in 1921 and remained in a wheelchair until the end of his life.
Eleonora enthusiastically worked on issues of employment and social protection of women. Thanks to her actions, the life of the lower and middle classes of the US population has improved significantly. For this reason, in the 30s she became even more popular in America than her husband.
When the world was threatened with fascism, Anna Eleonora Roosevelt took the post of Assistant US Secretary of Defense. She was one of the initiators of the UN education and fought all her life for freedom and human rights.
Even after the death of Franklin Roosevelt, Eleanor continued to be interested in politics. Moreover, she was in the administration of subsequent heads of state. An interesting fact is that she was admired by Presidents Harry Truman and John Kennedy.
World War II 1939-1945
Before the start of World War II, Roosevelt sought to maintain neutral relations with the countries of Europe and Latin America. He had no desire to get involved in a military conflict.
However, when arms exports plummeted in America, the president spoke out against Hitler’s policies and formed a military alliance with Britain. Soon America began to export its weapons to the United Kingdom.Franklin Delano Roosevelt
It is worth noting that at the beginning of World War II, the United States did not want to enter into open confrontation with Japan. But when on December 7, 1941, the Japanese pilots attacked the American military base in the Pacific, Roosevelt and Churchill declared war on Japan.
After 3 days, Germany and Italy declared war on the North Atlantic coalition.
However, another 3 long years will pass before Franklin Roosevelt decides to send his troops to Europe. Such an act was dictated by a series of brilliant victories of the USSR over the Nazis. As a result, the head of the White House, along with allies, opened the Western Front.
An interesting fact is that even at the very beginning of World War II, Roosevelt wanted to create an organization that could promote peace throughout the world. In his opinion, it should have consisted of 4 policing states: the USA, the USSR, China and the UK.
In January 1942, the American president managed to form the UN.Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill at the Yalta Conference, 1945
Franklin Roosevelt more than once participated in meetings with the leaders of Great Britain (Churchill) and the Soviet Union (Stalin).
He participated in conferences in Tehran, Yalta, Quebec, Moscow and Washington. They discussed global world issues.
After the end of the Yalta Conference, the head of the White House returned home, where he continued to work actively.
Suddenly, on April 12, 1945, Franklin Delano Roosevelt had a brain hemorrhage, from which he died suddenly.
Roosevelt was buried in Hyde Park. An interesting fact is that the autopsy was not performed, although the law required it. The funeral ceremony was held in a closed coffin.
Despite the fact that Roosevelt did not manage to realize many of his ideas (for example, the formation of a union of four and the strengthening of relations with the USSR), even today people speak of him with great respect throughout the world.